Cairo, literally The Vanquisher or The Conqueror, is the capital of Egypt, the largest city in Africa and the 16th most populous metropolitan area in the world. Cairo is also ranked as one of the most densely populated cities in the world. Nicknamed The City of a Thousand Minarets for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life. Cairo was founded by the Fatimid dynasty in the 10th Century, but the land composing the present-day city was the site of national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo. Cairo is also associated with Ancient Egypt due to its proximity to the ancient cities of Memphis, Giza and Fustat which are nearby to the [Great Sphinx] and the pyramids of "Giza"